‘Sengoku BASARA: Samurai Kings 2’ Review

Toyotomi Hideyoshi as he appears in Sengoku BASARA: Samurai Kings 2

Spoilers Ahead!

Sengoku BASARA: Samurai Kings 2 is the second season to the Sengoku BASARA anime franchise, which was released in 2010. Our favorite characters from season one, come back to face yet another enemy: Toyotomi Hideyoshi. While I love the Sengoku BASARA franchise, this season seemed harder to pull off than the last but it also had a more a serious tone than the previous.

As I have done before, I will go through every episode and point out some interesting information that might help explain certain things and review the season as a whole.

Ep. 1: Troubled Times Once Again! Advent of the Great Cataclysmic Warlord, Toyotomi Hideyoshi!!

Takenaka Hanbei and Toyotomi Hideyoshi at Ōsaka in official Sengoku BASARA artwork

The first episode starts off where season one ended: the forces of Uesugi Kenshin and Takeda Shingen fight at Kawanakajima, while Date Masamune attempts to take on Sanada Yukimura before joining in the fray himself. The battle is interrupted, however, when the Toyotomi army arrives.

Since we are going in the order of the Three Unifiers, it is obvious that the next villain of the series is going to be Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Despite him being the villain, it feels like a step down from the previous season. Yes, Hideyoshi is strong, and that is imposing, but Oda Nobunaga was literally a demon from another world, an almost unstoppable force. Hideyoshi also has more of a human side to him, as we will see later on. Yet, nothing about Hideyoshi screams “villain”, at least historically. As I mentioned in a previous review, to some, Hideyoshi could be seen as a villain, depending on how they fared under the rule of the Toyotomi, but I certainly would not peg him as a villain. They did manage, however, to keep Hideyoshi’s monkey like appearance that he is known for.

Takenaka Hanbei is also introduced, as he was a man who served as Hideyoshi’s strategist until his death in 1579. I have often wondered why Hanbei came across as somewhat feminine in Sengoku BASARA and it apparently is because of how he looked historically. He is described as having “a weak body and looked like a woman at first glance”.(1)

It is hinted at the beginning of this season that Keiji and Hideyoshi share some sort of past. Even in flashbacks in later episodes, we still do not get the whole picture regarding their relationship. We do know that, historically, Hideyoshi and Maeda Toshiie were close friends, but as for Keiji, there is only one instance where he met with Hideyoshi, and the two apparently hit it off well.(2) Beyond this, the only known close friendship Keiji had was with Naoe Kanetsugu. I even cannot say that he is a stand-in for Toshiie, because Toshiie is a character within the series, a man who is angry at himself for siding with Nobunaga, who caused so much carnage.

Ep. 2: The Lost Right Eye—The Dragon’s Back Rent Asunder!

Katakura Kojūrō and Date Masamune hold a war council after Kawanakajima

After the events of the first episode, everyone manages to escape the Toyotomi, however, they are beginning to realize that they might have rats in the midst, for the Toyotomi knew about the movements of all three armies. The focus moves to the Date clan, as they prepare to integrate their men about turning traitor. The Date had dealings with traitors in history, and I believe that this ties into the traitor within the anime.

Not long after Date Masamune took over the clan, one of his retainers Ōuchi Sadatsuna, left the Date clan for the Ashina clan of Aizu. This resulted with Masamune declaring war on the Ashina clan and led to the Battle of Suriagehara some years later in 1589.(3) Not much is known about this battle here in the West, but we do know that Masamune defeated the Ashina clan here with an overwhelming force of 23,000 compared to their 16,000.(4)

In this and the following episodes, we start learning more about the relationship between Date Masamune and Katakura Kojūrō, mainly through flashbacks. This is because Kojūrō is kidnapped by the Toyotomi, and throughout the rest of the series, Hanbei desperately tries to get Kojūrō to join them. It is known that Hideyoshi tried recruiting various men from other clans to serve him directly, and one of those men was Kojūrō. After Odawara, Hideyoshi gave Kojūrō the fief of Tamura, a domain worth about 50,000 koku. While this made Kojūrō a daimyō in his own right, he returned the land to Hideyoshi, showing his loyalty to Masamune.(5)

The other thing we learn is the engraving on Kojūrō’s sword, which is translated to “Bonten will become the One-Eyed Dragon soaring the Heavens”. Not only is it a show of undying loyalty on Kojūrō’s part, but it also shows us how long they have known each other. “Bonten” is part of Masamune’s childhood name, Bontenmaru.(6)

We begin seeing it in this episode, but the villains for season two are more human than our previous antagonist from season one. We learn more about them as the season progresses, but we especially see this from Hanbei. He works tirelessly to help create the world that Hideyoshi has envisioned, however, we find out the reason for this haste later on. It is a nice change of pace from Nobunaga who seemed to slaughter everything in his path.

Ep. 3: Keiji vs. Toshiie! Tedorigawa Choked with Unequivocal Ideals!!

Uesugi Kenshin defends Echigo from the Maeda

In this episode, the focus shifts towards Keiji, who does not understand why his uncle, Toshiie, has sided with Hideyoshi. Keiji goes to Echigo to clear his head but gets word from Kenshin that the Maeda army is fast approaching their borders and a battle takes place at Tedorigawa.

While Tedorigawa was a battle that was fought during the age of Oda Nobunaga (1577), this was meant to show the divide within the Maeda clan, mainly around the time of Sekigahara. It is known the Toshiie died in 1599, before Sekigahara, and Keiji, who was more of less a rōnin, aided the Uesugi with their fight against the Date and Mogami clans in the north, but what is not as well known is the divide in the Maeda clan due to Toshiie’s sons. Maeda Toshinaga was the eldest son of Toshiie and Matsu, and he sided with Tokugawa Ieyasu at the Battle of Sekigahara. Meanwhile, their second son, Maeda Toshimasa, had tried to have Ieyasu assassinated in October 1599 and sided with Ishida Mitsunari.(7) He would eventually have to surrender his lands to his brother after the battle and was spared execution due to their mother’s pleas.(8)

We have not talked a lot about Matsu, as of writing this article, but she is definitely one that will be getting her own article in the future.(9) The wife of Maeda Toshiie, she too was affected by the Sekigahara Campaign. After the failed assassination in October 1599, Matsu volunteered to be a hostage for the Tokugawa to preserve the Maeda family name during the conflict, despite the fact that she held an extreme dislike for Ieyasu.(10) As stated before, it was because of her that her second son, Toshimasa, was spared after Sekigahara, and this can be seen in the episode. While Toshiie is defeated by Keiji, Kenshin lets the Maeda army leave Echigo in peace and lets Matsu tend to her wounded husband.

Oyamada Nobushige in Sengoku BASARA: Samurai Kings 2

Lastly, we are introduced to a character who only makes an appearance in the anime, but not in the video games, even as a secondary character. Much like the retainers of the Date clan, the Takeda get one of their own, however, I find this one to be an interesting choice. In the second season, Yukimura is sent to Kyūshū in hopes of backing a resistance force that has been defending the island. Going with him is Oyamada Nobushige. Little is known about him here in the West. Known as one of the Twenty-Four Generals of Takeda Shingen, it seemed that he served the Takeda clan loyally, fighting at battles like Kawanakajima, Mikatagahara, and Nagashino. However, what he is most known for is his betrayal. Before the battle of Tenmokuzan, he offered shelter to Takeda Katsuyori at his castle of Iwadono, but he betrayed his lord to the Oda clan. After the battle was fought and Katsuyori dead, Nobushige went to the Oda main camp, however, he was executed on the spot by Horio Yoshiharu.(11) Considering that he was a traitor in the end, I found his inclusion to be an interesting add, but I cannot explain why he was included in this season. Perhaps it might be linked to how Yukimura’s father, Masayuki, tried to convince Katsuyori to come to his castle and leave Kai, but he went with Oyamada instead, but that is the only connection I can see.

Ep. 4: The Ghost of Azuchi Castle?! The Lamentation and Howl of Evil that Assail Yukimura!!

Matsunaga Hisahide with the skull of Oda Nobunaga

I always love a good ghost story, so this episode happens to be one of my favorites in this season. At the end of the last episode, Yukimura and his troop find themselves in Ōmi, a land that still has not full recovered from the rule of the Demon King. Rumor has it that Oichi’s ghost still haunts the remains of Azuchi Castle, and Yukimura decides to investigate while his men rest for the night.

I have not found anything to suggest that Azuchi Castle is haunted. Despite this, it was destroyed not long after Nobunaga’s death. Akechi Mitsuhide took it over for a short while, then a week later, it was set ablaze. Whether this was the work or the townspeople or one of Nobunaga’s surviving sons, it is unclear.(12)

Once again, Matsunaga Hisahide makes an appearance. While most will think that he was brought back because he was a fan favorite, there is actually something more to him coming back from his “fiery death”. There is one account that states that Matsunaga did not die at Shigisan Castle in 1577 but escaped and went on to serve Hideyoshi as an advisor, while keeping his precious Hiragumo kettle hidden somewhere on Mount Katasuragi.(13)

Ep. 5: Engraved Pledge! The One-Eyed Dragon vs. The War God—Confrontation at Hitotoribashi!!

Date Masamune at Hitotoribashi, examining Kojūrō’s sword

After recovering from his injuries from the three-fold fight against the Toyotomi clan, Date Masamune charges headlong to Ōsaka, only to be stopped by Kenshin at Hitotoribashi, a famous battle that was fought between the Date and various other clans. According to Kenshin, this is where Masamune fought his most desperate fight and suffered his greatest losses, hence why he chose Hitotoribashi as the place to stall him.

Despite being one of the most popular figures from the Sengoku Jidai, there is not a lot of information about Date Masamune and the battles he fought, at least here in the West. Hitotoribashi is one of them. The Date clan faced off against a five-clan army of 30,000 with only 7,000 men, swearing vengeance for the death of his father, Terumune. Surprisingly, the Date only lost 380 men, but he would lose one of his loyal retainers in the fight: Oniniwa Yoshinao.(14)

At the beginning of this episode, we are treated to a flashback, going back to the early days of Masamune’s rise to power. He was wounded at Hitotoribashi and Kojūrō felt responsible, feeling like he failed to protect him. Thus, he decided to commit seppuku for his failure. Masamune knocks some sense into him, and Kojūrō continued to serve him. In the English dub, they use the term “hara-kiri”. This is a term that is heard more often than “seppuku” in the English-speaking world, but is there a difference? The answer is yes. Hara-kiri and seppuku do refer to the same action, however, hara-kiri is seldom used in Japan, and is seen as vulgar term for the ritual.(15) While seppuku became more of a widespread term around the mid-1400s, war sagas of previous centuries referred to it as either hara-kiru or hara-kitte fukasu, all having a similar meaning of cutting the stomach. Seppuku tends to be the more formal way of referring to the act, while hara-kiri tends to be used in sensationalized works like books and film (for example, the 1962 film Hara-kiri). Since the word is hardly used in Japan, it is assumed that is a foreign word that was created by foreigners as a mistranslation of the kanji that makes up the word seppuku.(16)

Ep. 6: The Menacing Toyotomi-Mōri Alliance! The Powerful Fist of Supremacy Cleaves the Sea!!

Chōsokabe Motochika takes on the Toyotomi-Mōri alliance

In this episode, the Toyotomi have begun their invasion of Shikoku, leading to a battle between the Chōsokabe and the Toyotomi, who had just sealed an alliance with the Mōri.

As I stated in the beginning of this review, Hideyoshi makes for an unusual villain. Nobunaga is easy to vilify, given his actions, but Hideyoshi is different. This is not to say that he is a saint. After all, certain sources state that he was the one who killed Oichi and Azai Nagamasa’s infant son after the siege at Odani Castle in 1573.(17) Nevertheless, Hideyoshi has been made a villain for the series, with his focus being on creating a strong Japan. Strength is his driving force. I always wondered why that was the case, but I think we begin to see why with the invasion of Shikoku. While in the anime, Hideyoshi took on Chōsokabe Motochika by himself, at the real invasion, Hideyoshi had 113,000 men at his command.(18) This is where Hideyoshi’s strength in the series comes in. Hideyoshi represents the strength of his armies throughout most of their campaigns. After all, the other campaigns, Kyūshū and Odawara, would end up consisting of over 200,000 soldiers.(19) Meanwhile, the first invasion of Korea saw totals of nearly 300,000.(20) Hideyoshi’s representation in the anime is the personification of the strength of his forces as a whole rather than his own personal strength.

Throughout the season, we begin to see why Hanbei is so desperate to see the land unified under the Toyotomi banner: he might not live to see it. We see him progressively get sicker with each passing episode, and if you have watched enough Westerns, you know that as soon as someone starts coughing up blood, it is automatically tuberculosis. This has been one of the possible causes of death listed for Hanbei, the other being pneumonia.(21) With his rapidly declining health, it is easy to see why Hanbei overworks himself, for all he wants is to see Japan under Hideyoshi’s rule.

Ep. 7: To the Southernmost Land of Satsuma! A New Encounter as a Man for Yukimura!

Miyamoto Musashi as he appears in Sengoku BASARA: Samurai Kings 2

We are introduced to Miyamoto Musashi in this episode as Yukimura finally arrives in Kyūshū and he’s surprised to see, along with most of the viewing audience, that Shimazu Yoshihiro is still alive, despite obviously being killed off in season one. Not much of note happens in this episode, however, we see some serious character growth come from Sanada Yukimura. Throughout the entire trip to the southern island, Yukimura struggles with the task he is given and feels even more burden when Oyamada is killed at the end of the previous episode, all because he wanted to help the Chōsokabe army, despite their utter defeat. He struggles with how the war has affected the people in the land and begins to wonder why he even fights. After sparing with Musashi and a talk with Yoshihiro, Yukimura finds his resolve once again and is able to ride on to defeat the Mōri towards the end of the season.

Ep. 8: A Sad Reunion with a Friend – Memory of the Day Etched with Blinding Obsession!

Maeda Keiji speaks with Takenaka Hanbei after his meeting with Hideyoshi

Maeda Keiji arrives in Ōsaka to remove the Maeda clan from further campaigns with the Toyotomi, and confronts Hideyoshi about their troubled past, mainly asking why he killed Nene. This is probably something that was thrown in as a creative liberty in order to create a dark backstory for Hideyoshi, but it is jarring, nonetheless. Historically, Nene outlived Hideyoshi, bearing witness to the fall of her husband’s clan.(22) In the anime, however, she is killed because Hideyoshi began to view love as a weakness, unlike Keiji, who views love more as a strength. We see later on that Hideyoshi might have some regret for killing Nene, but it is never explicitly stated.

Ep. 9: Dragon and Ogre –Clash and Roar in Owari! The Combined Force of the Date and Chōsokabe!!

Not much of note takes place in this episode. The defeated Chōsokabe managed to survive the invasion of Shikoku and square off with the Date, who think they are bandits trying to make off with their horses. Meanwhile, the invasion of Kyūshū begins and Yukimura helps fight off the invaders to the best of his ability.

Ep. 10: The Young Tiger Restored! The Great Fortress Rebuilt—the Menace of the Sun Heads East!!

Matsunaga Hisahide taunts Keiji after he defeats Hideyoshi

Matsunaga Hisahide makes another appearance, as he “helps” the Toyotomi lure out the Date by using Kojūrō as bait. It seems like everyone in the series has had a run-in with Matsunaga, for even Motochika mentions that he has dealt with him before. We also saw in few episodes prior to this that Matsunaga is the reason for Hideyoshi going mad and becoming obsessed with strength. While historically, Hideyoshi would have dealt with Matsunaga as an ally for a time, Motochika did not have any dealings with the Matsunaga clan. There is the possibility, however, that Matsunaga in Sengoku BASARA also represents the Miyoshi clan. As we saw in season one, Matsunaga did have the Miyoshi Triumvirate on his side, and the Matsunaga and Miyoshi clans were on again/off again allies. The Miyoshi did side with the warrior monks of Ishiyama Honganji for a time, while in Shikoku, the Chōsokabe went to war with them there to unify the island. Given how both men were enemies against the Miyoshi at one point in their lives, it is possible that Matsunaga represents them as well. It also explains each scene within season two. Keiji and Hideyoshi are defeated by Matsunaga and while they are recovering, are found by warrior monks from Ishiyama. Motochika, on the other hand, states that he had previous dealings with Matsunaga, though he does not elaborate on what happened.

We start seeing glimpses of the next generation in this episode: Tokugawa Ieyasu and Ishida Mitsunari. There’s just one problem…how is Ieyasu alive? As we saw in season one, Ieyasu is killed by Akechi Mitsuhide, yet somehow, he is now alive and ready to take on the warriors at Kyūshū. I have mentioned this continuity error in both reviews for season one and the following film, but it would not bother me so much if there was an explanation to him surviving his assassination.

The Kyūshū Invasion is still ongoing; however, the allies get a moment to relax after the sun sets and their commander, Motonari, leaves the battlefield. We see Yukimura come into his own after a discussion with Yoshihiro on the beach. Yoshihiro calls him one of the greatest warriors of the Rising Sun, a nod to one of the many titles Yukimura managed to obtain. This, however, was actually said by Yoshihiro’s third son, Shimazu Tadatsune, who called him the “number one warrior in Japan.”(23)

Ep. 11: Toyotomi’s Greatest Main Army Dashes for Supremacy! Earnest Keiji Draws Sword in Heartbreak!!

Much like episode nine, there is not much here for episode eleven to be discussed. Kojūrō has finally returned to the Date and goes after Hanbei bent on revenge, Motochika goes to save his men, while Masamune begins his face-off with Hideyoshi. Keiji desperately tried to get Hideyoshi to reconsider, believing that there is some good in Hideyoshi still, but his old friend ignores him.

Ep. 12: Azure and Crimson Do-or-Die Battle! To the Sound of the Breeze at the End of the Fierce Struggle!!

Only one thing to note at the end of the season, and it is actually something that is pointed out if you watch the behind the scenes of Sengoku BASARA: The Last Party. If you look closely at Ishida Mitsunari’s eyes in season two, you see that they are softer in appearance, whereas in the movie that follows the second season, his eyes change to reflect the pain of losing Hideyoshi, becoming sterner and more serious.

(I could not find a decent image of Ishida Mitsunari during season two to show the difference, however, if you watch the episode, you will see the change.)

Ep. 13: Dragon and Tiger-Oath of Victory! Souls Racing Towards a Blazing Future!!

Official artwork for Sengoku BASARA: Samurai Kings 2 with Sarutobi Sasuke and Katakura Kojūrō and their respective masks

Lastly, there is episode thirteen. This takes place during the first season when the Date are still with the Takeda after Nagashino. Shingen puts Masamune and Yukimura to the test, by having them fight Kojūrō, Sasuke and finally, Shingen himself, but they all wear a different mask. It is hilarious to see that Yukimura cannot seem to figure out that they are fighting people they know, yet, there is meaning behind each mask that Kojūrō, Sasuke and Shingen wear.

Starting with the first to be introduced, Sasuke wears a Tenko mask. The mask is modeled after a fox, known in Japan as kitsune. Foxes in Japanese mythology are interesting, for some can be good while others are evil. They are also known to be shapeshifters as well, which explains perfectly why Sasuke is given the Tenko mask.(24) Though it is more of a modern trope for ninjas, Sasuke can change himself into anyone, and he even displays this talent for Masamune, his opponent, by transforming himself into Yukimura, then finally Masamune himself.

Next is Kojūrō, who wears a Tengu mask. Instantly recognizable for the bright red face and long nose, Tengu masks are the most iconic Japanese masks outside of the home islands. While the mask is based off of the mythical Japanese creature (which is also considered to be a “yokai”/a supernatural deity), the meaning behind the mask is important in this case. One of its meanings, outside of Noh, is that of a warrior who has mastery of the martial arts. The tengu themselves, are also seen as an image of protection.(25) These are both things that define Kojūrō. He is not only skilled with a sword, but we also see throughout this season that he has mastered hand-to-hand combat as well, something his has passed on to Masamune. When he realizes that Sasuke has gone too far with his multiple clones of his lord, Kojūrō, without breaking character, rushes in to literally, protect Masamune from himself. Yet another case of a mask befitting the character who wears it.

Hyottoko Mask

The final task for Masamune and Yukimura is to fight Shingen, who wears a Hyottoko mask. This crazy looking mask may seem like an odd choice for Shingen, but it is actually quite fitting, much like the others. Hyottoko masks represent the god of fire (at least that is one of their meanings), which makes sense for Shingen, who flew banners with Fūrinkazan, meaning “Wind, Forest, Fire, Mountain”.(26) There is also the “element” for Shingen in Sengoku BASARA. Each character has an element associated with them. Masamune is lightning, Yukimura is fire, which is something he shares with his lord Shingen, who counters his rival, Kenshin, who is ice.

Final Thoughts

The second season does its best to be just as good as season one, however, it is lacking in certain areas. The character deaths in season one no longer carry the same hopeless feeling because they miraculously survived. Hideyoshi and Hanbei, who were not present for the events in season one, come onto the scene without much notice, and because they are somewhat sympathetic villains, the story does not have the same amount of fear to it that season one did with Nobunaga. Much like the film that follows, it felt like there was so much more that could have been done with this season but failed to execute it. I still recommend it if you liked season one, for it has the same great animation style, a beautiful soundtrack, and a more somber storyline than the craziness that came with season one.


  1. “Hanbei Takenaka”, Koei Wiki. https://koei.fandom.com/wiki/Hanbei_Takenaka, last accessed 8/8/2022
  2. “Keiji Maeda”, Koei Wiki. https://koei.fandom.com/wiki/Keiji_Maeda, last accessed 8/8/2022
  3. “Date Masamune”, Wikipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Date_Masamune, last accessed 8/8/2022
  4. “Battle of Surigahara”, Wikipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Suriagehara, last accessed 8/8/2022
  5. “Katakura Kagetsuna”, Wikipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katakura_Kagetsuna, last accessed 8/8/2022
  6. “Date Masamune”, Wikipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Date_Masamune, last accessed 8/8/2022
  7. Glenn, Chris. The Battle of Sekigahara: The Greatest, Bloodiest, Most Decisive Samurai Battle Ever (2021), p. 22
  8. “Maeda Toshimasa”, Wikipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maeda_Toshimasa_(1578), last accessed 8/8/2022
  9. When the article on Matsu is written, the link will be provided here.
  10. Glenn, Chris. The Battle of Sekigahara: The Greatest, Bloodiest, Most Decisive Samurai Battle Ever (2021), p. 22
  11. “Oyamada Nobushige”, Wkipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oyamada_Nobushige, last accessed 8/8/2022
  12. “Azuchi Castle”, Wikipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azuchi_Castle, last accessed 8/8/2022
  13. “Matsunaga Hisahide”, Japanese Wiki Corpus. https://www.japanese-wiki-corpus.org/person/Hisahide%20MATSUNAGA.html, last accessed 8/8/2022
  14. “Battle of Hitotoribashi”, Wkipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Hitotoribashi, last accessed 8/8/2022
  15. Rankin, Andrew. Seppuku: A History of Samurai Suicide (2018), p. 24
  16. Rankin, Andrew. Seppuku: A History of Samurai Suicide (2018), pp. 24-26
  17. Chaplin, Danny. Sengoku Jidai: Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, & Ieyasu: Three Unifiers of Japan (2018), p. 211
  18. “Invasion of Shikoku (1585)”, Wikipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasion_of_Shikoku_(1585), last accessed 8/8/2022
  19. “Kyūshū Campaign”, Wikipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ky%C5%ABsh%C5%AB_campaign, last accessed 8/8/2022  &  “Siege of Odawara (1590)”, Wikipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Odawara_(1590), last accessed 8/8/2022
  20. “Japanese invasions of Korea (1592-1598)”, Wikipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_invasions_of_Korea_(1592%E2%80%931598), last accessed 8/8/2022
  21. “Hanbei Takenaka”, Koei Wiki. https://koei.fandom.com/wiki/Hanbei_Takenaka, last accessed 8/8/2022
  22. “Nene”, Koei Wiki. https://koei.fandom.com/wiki/Nene, last accessed 8/8/2022
  23. “Sanada Yukimura”, Wikipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanada_Yukimura, last accessed 8/8/2022
  24. “Kitsune-Meaning of Japanese Kitsune Mask”, History of Masks. http://www.historyofmasks.net/famous-masks/kitsune/, last accessed 8/8/2022
  25. “Tengu masks meaning and origin”, Kimakura Kami. https://kimurakami.com/blogs/japan-blog/tengu-mask, last accessed 8/8/2022
  26. “What’s Wrong with this Guy’s Face? #Shorts”, Let’s Ask Shogo | Your Japanese Friend in Kyoto, YouTube.com. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kX_nGyauVRU&t=10s, last viewed 8/8/2022