Cue “Jap” by Abingdon Boys School.
Sengoku BASARA: Samurai Kings is the animated television show version of the famous video game series that is produced by Capcom. The show is a much watch for any Sengoku BASARA fan, and for anyone who loves the Sengoku Jidai, for there are tiny bits of historical information spread throughout. Let’s look at the first season and see what can be found in the anime series, which was released in 2009.
Brief List of Major Characters
- Date Masamune. Head of the Date clan, often called “Big Boss” by his men. Wields between 1-6 katanas at a time, known as the “Dragon Claws”. He uses some English dialogue in the Japanese version of the show, much like his character in the video game.
- Katakura Kojūrō. The “Right Eye of the Dragon” and also called “Boss” by his men. A left-handed sword fighter, he is more level-headed than his hot-headed master.
- Sanada Yukimura. The honest to a fault general of the Takeda clan. He is always learning from Takeda Shingen and is charge of the Sanada Ninja Corps.
- Sarutobi Sasuke. The leader of the Sanada Ninja Corps and sometimes, the voice of reason when it comes to dealing with Yukimura.
- Takeda Shingen. The “Tiger of Kai” who has an ongoing rivalry with Uesugi Kenshin. Comparing the two, he is sterner and fiercer than his northern counterpart.
- Uesugi Kenshin. The “Dragon of Echigo”. Calm and extremely wise, he has a friendship with Maeda Keiji and a romantic relationship with his shinobi, Kasuga.
- Kasuga. A potential assassin turned loyal servant of the Uesugi she is usually reserved in emotion unless she is around Kenshin. An obvious fan service character.
- Maeda Keiji. A vagabond who believes in love and the good of people. He travels with his pet monkey, Yumekichi.
Episode 1: Azure and Crimson, A Fateful Encounter!
The first episode introduces us to the major players in the season, mainly focusing on the budding rivalry between Date Masamune and Sanada Yukimura.
We are first introduced to the Date Army, which look a bit modern with their hairstyles and handlebars on their horses. It has been noted that the Date Army has been modeled after stereotypical biker gangs, and some have even gone as far as saying that the Date clan resembles a Yakuza clan.(1) The biker gang inspiration works better for the Date clan as a whole, but the only one out of the Date clan that has any yakuza like mannerisms is Katakura Kojūrō, who was specifically modeled after yakuza leaders found in Japanese films.(2) Interestingly, the yakuza actually got their start in last years of the Sengoku Jidai, which will be a topic all its own in another article.(3)
From there, we are introduced to many of the other famous generals including Oda Nobunaga. Before we are introduced to him, we see a temple burning and Akechi Mitsuhide kills Hongan-ji Kennyo. Though he is not a major player in this series, he was a playable character in the first game of Sengoku BASARA. He is, of course, the fictional version of Hongan-ji Kennyo, also known as Kōsa, who was the abbot of the famous Ishiyama Hongan-ji.
When most people think of Uesugi Kenshin and Takeda Shingen, most people think of the Fourth Battle of Kawanakajima, which just so happens to be what is featured in this first episode. Shingen sends Yukimura to execute the “Woodpecker” maneuver, which was the actual name for the plan that they attempted to execute at the actual battle.(4) Much like in real life, the Uesugi are not there, however, Yukimura meets up with the Date, who were also trying to attack the Uesugi.
Both Shingen and Kenshin meet at the battlefield, and Kenshin thanks Shingen for waiting. Shingen replies that it was a thank you for the salt. This is a popular story about the relationship between the so-called rivals. Kai is a landlock province, which meant that they had to rely on their allies to help support supply lines to get access to salt. The clan that controlled this for the Takeda was the Hōjō. At one point, the Hōjō did cut the Takeda’s supply routes for salt. Upon hearing this, Kenshin sent salt to Kai, saying that wars are to be fought with swords, not salt.(5) This story shows how much of a deep respect both Kenshin and Shingen had for one another and this is reflected in the anime series.
I have had a couple people ask me about doing an article on Sarutobi Sasuke and Kasuga, two fan favorites. While I have covered Sasuke in the article about the Sanada Ten Braves, Kasuga is a bit more difficult because she is a creation for the Sengoku BASARA franchise.(6) Her name, however, comes from Kenshin’s main castle in Echigo which was named Kasugayama.(7) Unfortunately, nothing remains of the castle today, however, its grounds have been deemed a historical site and you can walk the grounds where the castle once stood.(8)
An interesting thing I found about this series is that it is one of the first animes I have seen on samurai that bring up the usage of the conch shell horn, better known as the horagai or jinkai for warfare usage.(9) There is little information on these, but it is known that jinkai were used for signaling for battle during Feudal Japan. This anime is the only one I’ve seen so far that has them using such an instrument. Only one character uses it though: one of Date Masamune’s loyal retainers has it attached to his hip and blows it to signal the armies to press forward or to signal a retreat.
Episode 2: Horrific! Confrontation at Okehazama!
In the second episode, we see a historical event begin to take place with the Imagawa clan slowly making their way to the capital, but the Date sweep in to try to take Imagawa Yoshimoto’s domains after not accomplishing any of their goals at Kawanakajima. However, the Takeda have the same idea, but after stealing the “Woodpecker Maneuver” through intel, the Takeda end up fighting the Hōjō. The episode ends with the death of Imagawa Yoshimoto at the hands of Oda Nobunaga.
Starting off with Imagawa Yoshimoto, I found BASARA’s version to be over the top, but in a good way. Much like his Samurai Warriors counterpart, his character design follows historical records, for it has been said that Yoshimoto was known for blackening his teeth, shaving his eyebrows and being carried around in a palanquin almost everywhere.(10) They focus on this air of regality that Yoshimoto was known for and magnified it by a thousand. They do this with many of the figures from this era, but Yoshimoto is more pronounced than some of the others.
In this series, Date Masmune has more retainers than just Katakura Kojūrō and you have to pay close attention to the dialogue in order to get their names. They are Samanosuke (he wears glasses), Yoshinao (the one who looks like a greaser), Bushichi (has the ponytail) and Magobei (the short guy who’s always hungry). From what I could find, only one is based off one of Masamune’s retainers and that is Oniniwa Yoshinao (1513-January 6, 1586). Historically, he served both Masamune and his father, Date Terumune. He was seventy-three years old at the famous battle of Hitatoribashi and fought bravely, however, he was killed in battle, and it was because of Yoshinao that Masamune was able to retreat to Motomiya Castle.(11)
Nōhime in the Sengoku BASARA franchise is known for her butterfly tattoo located on her right thigh. The tattoo is not just there for show, for there is meaning behind her tattoo. Her given name, Kichō, means “return butterfly” in Japanese, hence for the symbolism of the butterfly not only on her thigh, but on her kimono as well.(12)
I tried looking into what went into the character development for Akechi Mitsuhide, for it is far different than any I have ever seen. Akechi Mitsuhide is a downright evil man, who sees war as a game. He’s also bit of a masochist as we see later at Honnō-ji. He is a very dark character, and even the Wiki pages he is mentioned on all have the same wording, that “he enjoys the suffering of other people; possibly of a greater evil than Oda Nobunaga himself.”(13) You really have to be messed up if you are considered to be worse than BASARA’s version of Oda Nobunaga. It is possible that they made him this way due to the betrayal at Honnō-ji, which came as a shock to many of Nobunaga’s retainers and vassals, but without knowing for sure what the inspiration for BASARA’s version of Mitsuhide is, this is just a guess.
Episode 3: Vagabond, Maeda Keiji!
The third episode introduces the Maeda family and Maeda Keiji goes out to try to gather a force that could take down Oda Nobunaga. He meets resistance with the Date, who are struggling to recover mentally after losing Imagawa Yoshimoto to the Devil King.
There are a couple things of note in this episode. It is true that Maeda Keiji and Toshiie did not really get along. This was because, historically, Toshiie was replaced as head of the clan instead of Keiji, which caused some bad blood between them.(14) This disagreement would end up resulting in the cold bath incident. It is mentioned in this episode, and it’s not just there to show that Keiji is slightly mischievous. As the story goes, sometime in 1590 and after the death of Maeda Toshihisa (Toshiie’s older brother and Keiji’s adoptive father), Keiji left the Maeda clan, but before he did, he tricked his uncle into taking a cold bath and while he was in the bath, Keiji ran off with Toshiie’s prized horse, the famous Matsukaze.(15)
There was an encirclement of Oda plan of sorts, but it looks far different than how it is portrayed in the anime. Ashikaga Yoshiaki wanted to retaliate against Nobunaga, who was beginning to limit the power of the shōgun. Yoshiaki formed alliances with the Asakura, Azai, Matsunaga, Miyoshi and Takeda clans as well as the Buddhist warrior monks of Ishiyama-Honganji to encircle Nobunaga. This somewhat worked, for the clans managed to keep Nobunaga in central Japan from 1570 to 1573, when the plans were abandoned after the passing of Takeda Shingen.(16)
Episode 4: Wavering Scarlet Flower – Loyalty that Brings Sorrow!
While Maeda Keiji is working to get the northern generals on board with the encirclement plan, Takeda Shingen has taken it upon himself to reach out to two unlikely allies: Azai Nagamasa and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Unfortunately, both remain loyal to the Oda and the end of the episode sets up for a clash at Nagashino and Shitaragahara.
Starting with Azai Nagamasa and Oichi, they are the tragic figures in this series. Nagamasa is always torn between familial ties and friendships of old, struggling with the idea that he might end up giving up his ideals, mainly on justice. Oichi constantly blames herself, most likely because of her brother. Unfortunately, the two end up in a precarious position at the end of the episode, for Oichi is held hostage to make Nagamasa comply. While this changes up history, it is not far from the truth. There were problems within the Azai clan once Nobunaga began attacking the Asakura, a clan that the Azai had an alliance with. Originally, Nagamasa wanted to remain neutral in these matters, however, in the end, he chose the Asakura over the Oda, which would lead to his downfall.(17)
As for Tokugawa Ieyasu, he is interesting for he is the only character “grows up” in the series, and not just the anime series either. Ieyasu is called Takechiyo during this season because of his young age, but in the coming seasons and video games, we do see him become a man, and he is the only character to do so.(18)
Episode 5: Brutal! The Righteous Battle of Nagashino and Shitaragahara!
The Oda and the Eastern generals clash at Nagashino and Shitaragahara and Maeda Keiji tries to take on the Devil King by himself.
It is interesting to note that historically, Nagashino and Shitaragahara are one in the same. This is a bit confusing at first but there is an easy explanation for this. The clash began at Nagashino Castle, which was a Tokugawa stronghold. Once the Takeda learned that the Oda and Tokugawa armies were coming to relieve the castle defenders, a war council was held. Takeda Katsuyori went against the pleas of his senior generals and decided to face the enemy head-on rather than retreat back to Kai.(19) The field were the battle actually took place is not too far away from Nagashino Castle, however, it is referred to Shitagarahara.(20) Shitaragahara is the spot where the famous charge and gun volley took place. We will be covering Nagashino on its own in the future, but I hope this explains the difference between the two names.
The anime series treats its audience to a lot of philosophical lessons, usually it is between Takeda Shingen and Sanada Yukimura. Usually, it sometimes involves them beating each other to a pulp, ending with Yukimura finally understanding his master’s teachings. One that take place in this episode that is different from the others is when Yukimura sees a Tokugawa soldier slain and his friend rushes to his dying body. After his friend dies in his arms, the man rushes to Yukimura out of revenge, but is killed by Sasuke who comments that Yukimura is acting like it is first battle. Shingen steps in and tells Yukimura that the enemy is like them: people who have dreams and desires. Despite this, he cannot let that cloud his mind while on the battlefield.
Shingen and Yukimura are not the only characters that have moments like this. Another event in this episode happens between Maeda Keiji and Uesugi Kenshin. Keiji always tries to see the good in people, including Nobunaga. Wanting to end the wars without bloodshed, he rushes to the location where Nobunaga has been watching the battles unfold to talk to him. Kenshin, realizing that Nobunaga would kill him before even hearing a word, rushes to stop Keiji. Keiji believes that the so-called Devil King cannot be all bad, but Kenshin tells him that unfortunately, there are some people in this world born truly evil. There are lots of these moments throughout the series, but these were the two I wanted to highlight for this series.
Episode 6: Bonds Torn Asunder—Mortifying Retreat for Masamune!
The last episode ended with Azai Nagamasa getting shot by Oda troops as he fights Masamune. Unfortunately, this was in front of his wife, Oichi, who is devastated at the death of her husband. Akechi Mitsuhide is behind Nagamasa’s death, and Masamune fights him in a blinding rage. Tokugawa Ieyasu realizes he has been abandoned by the Oda as the arquebus corps they were waiting on never arrived. Nōhime takes down Honda Tadakatsu and there are no clear winners for either battle. Shingen helps the wounded of all clans by opening Kai to those who fought at Nagashino and Shitaragahara. Yukimura goes and extends this invitation to the Date, who end up going to Kai after it is revealed that Masamune was shot during the battle.
Oichi is the tragic figure of the Sengoku Jidai, mainly due to the nature of her husband’s death by her brother’s hands. Her Sengoku BASARA version is no different, however, the anime reveals a story that sounds more like Nōhime’s historical story. Akechi Mitsuhide reveals that Oichi was sent to destroy the Azai clan from within but instead, she fell in love with Nagamasa and abandoned her mission to destroy the Azai. Many rumors surround Nōhime about her possibly being a spy for her family or sent as an assassin, so I wonder if they took this story and applied it to Oichi instead.
Towards the end of the episode, we see Oda Nobunaga drinking saké out of a skull. Most people probably wouldn’t think anything of it, seeing it as another way to make Nobunaga look more like a “Devil King”. However, there’s some truth to this. There is record in The Chronicle of Lord Nobunaga that Nobunaga did drink out of skulls that were lacquered in gold, but who the skulls once belonged to will turn stomachs. They were the skulls of Asakura Yoshikage, Azai Hisamasa (Nagamasa’s father) and Azai Nagamasa.(21) They were present for a New Year’s celebration in 1574 to which Nobunaga drank saké out of the skulls.
Episode 7: Marauding Villain! Two Dragons Duel in Earnest Under the Moon!
This episode brings in the fan favorite Matsunaga Hisahide. He attacks the Kai border and takes a couple of Date’s retainers as hostages. In return, he demands Takeda’s Armor that Needs No Shield and Masamune’s Dragon Claws. Katakura Kojūrō initially decides not to bother Masamune nor Shingen on the matter, but Masamune makes Kojūrō see otherwise. Kojūrō takes Masamune’s swords with him, and after talking to Shingen, Yukimura takes the armor and follows.
We have talked about Matsunaga Hisahide in great detail on this website, especially commenting on Sasuke’s comment about how he is known as the Villain of the Warring States, but he is just a hermit who likes antiques. For more on Matsunaga Hisahide, please check out our article on him here.
I have often wondered when watching this if the mentioned “Armor that Needs No Shield” is real. Turns out, it is. Apparently, the armor is based off a suit of armor that Takeda Shingen owned but was made as an offering to the clan’s guardian god. It was apparently strong enough that it did not require a shield. Retainers of Shingen would swear their loyalty on the armor and the Takeda banner and was even present at the Battle of Tenmokuzan. It was given to a trusted Takeda retainer towards the end of the clan’s demise and was told to never let it fall into enemy hands.(22) This was all I could find on this armor, but it is still interesting to find out that it actually existed.
In this episode, we get to see more of the Right Eye of the Dragon, Katakura Kojūrō. We get a closer view of the kanji at the tips of his jacket. On his left is “gi” (義) and on his right is “jin” (仁). “Gi” means rectitude while “jin” means benevolence. These are two of the seven virtues of a samurai, or simply known as Bushidō.(23) This gives us more of a glimpse into what kind of man Katakura Kojūrō really is, considering that he has these two kanji on his person at all times.
Episode 8: Great Temple of Carnage! Kojūrō in Dire Straits!
This episode serves as part two in the dealings with Matsunaga Hisahide.
I carried over some of what was introduced in episode seven because there was not much to note when it came to this episode. Much of this we have talked about before because of the article on Matsunaga Hisahide and on Hiragumo. The first thing that stands out is that this part of the series takes place at the destroyed Tōdaiji, a destruction that was tied to Matsunaga, which may or may not be truth. Then there is the Miyoshi Three, the three retainers of the Miyoshi clan that Matsunaga distrusted but reluctantly worked with the assassination of the shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshiteru. These are kind of obvious things that we have covered in a previous article, so I will not cover them much here.
Episode 9: The Tiger of Kai Dies at Midaigawa!
In this episode, Oda Nobunaga moves on to take Kyūshū while Nōhime, Mori Ranmaru and Akechi Mitsuhide go to the east to carry out assassinations of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Uesugi Kenshin and Takeda Shingen.
The episode opens with Oda Nobunaga going to Kyūshū, which historically, he never made it that far. What I found to be interesting about the opening was Nobunaga’s attack on the Catholics. Follow me on this. The character that was depicted in the black robes is Xavi. He has not really been a character in any of the recent games, but he still makes an appearance through Ōtomo Sōrin, one of his disciples. The name is obvious, but Xavi is Sengoku BASARA’s version of St. Francis Xavier, the Jesuit missionary who brought Christianity to Japan. I found this to be extremely interesting for historically, Nobunaga was on good terms with the Christian missionaries that came to Japan, even going so far as to let them build a church at Azuchi.(24) However, the Oda Nobunaga of Sengoku BASARA is a lot different than the man he is based off of, for they mainly focus on his brutality and his nickname of “Demon King” when creating him. Despite this, it is one of the few samurai animes that take place during the Sengoku Jidai that even acknowledges the presence of Christians in Japan.
One issue that I had with this series, and grant it the only issue, was the death of Tokugawa Ieyasu. For some reason, they decided to kill him off in this episode, yet it is obvious that he is going to have to come back at some point. They don’t really address this much, especially in the movie (which I have already reviewed). The continuity error with character deaths does not stop with Ieyasu though, as we will see in season two, but those are usually explained. Ieyasu’s death then sudden comeback is never explained, and it does not sit well with me.
Episode 10: Yukimura Beyond Recovery?! The Date Army’s Tearful Disbandment!
In this episode, we learned that both Kenshin and Shingen have survived the attempts made on their lives and the grander plan that is unfolding with the Oda and Mitsuhide especially. The end of the episode ends with Masamune and Yukimura riding off to Honnō-ji.
There is one thing I would like to mention in this episode and that is the meaning behind Sanada Yukimura’s six coins. Masamune understands perfectly well what they meant the first time he met Yukimura, so let’s investigate it. The six coins make up the crest of the Sanada clan, known as the Rokumonsen. The six coins are ready payment for crossing the Sanzu River into the underworld. This symbol meant that those who served the Sanada did not fear death and were ready to die in battle at anytime.(25)
Episode 11: Mitsuhide’s Betrayal! Honnō-ji Temple Goes Up in Flames!
Nothing really of note in this episode. Masamune and Yukimura reach Honnō-ji only to find that Nobunaga is not there. Mitsuhide was also tricked, and they duel as the temple burns. It is found out later that Nobunaga is at Azuchi Castle and Masamune and Yukimura go to there to face Nobunaga while Kojūrō fights Mitsuhide.
Episode 12: Azuchi Castle Keep—A Fight to the Death for Tomorrow!
It is the finale, and the Eastern forces fight on at Azuchi and with help from their Western allies, were able to breach the castle. Nobunaga is defeated and the generals go back to fighting one another without the threat of the Devil King hanging over them.
Oichi unfortunately meets her end in this episode, but before she does, she asks her brother to wake up, as if this is not the same brother she once knew. Even Masamune picks up on the fact that Nobunaga might not be human. This might have to do with the discussions in recent years that reexamine Oda Nobunaga and the claims of him being “evil”. Oichi has grown up with her brother, so she would know him better than anyone. As for Masamune, he claims that all the evil that has ever happened in the world and that would happen have taken the form of a man and called themselves Nobunaga. Considering what Nobunaga has done, it is easy to see him as living up to his nickname, but does it hold any merit? I think I’ll save that discussion for another article…
At the end of the episode, we see life return to some sort of peace, and in one of these scenes, we see Mori Ranmaru napping under a tree and he is awoken by a young girl. This character is also a character who no longer appears in the newer Sengoku BASARA games, and her name is Itsuki. She is a girl from the far north and is supposed to represent the Ainu tribe.(26) While she only gets this brief moment on screen, it is nice to see that they brought in all the characters that were introduced to fans in the first game.
The season ends where it began: at Kawanakajima, specifically, the Fourth Battle of Kawanakajima. Kenshin charges the Takeda main camp and attacks Shingen there, which happened at the fourth clash at Kawanakajima in 1561.(27)
Episode 13: Clash in the Inland Sea of Seto! Fugaku, the Great Fire-Breathing Fortress of the Sea!
As with most animes, there is a bonus episode, which is usually labeled as episode 13. For Sengoku BASARA season one, it is Keiji’s journey to the west to bring in the Western generals Mōri Motonari and Chōsokabe Motochika on board with attacking Nobunaga. Keiji is successful but only after a fight breaks out between the two generals.
Interestingly, I have not found anything that connects Mōri Motonari and Chōsokabe Motochika. Both lived during completely different times, with Motonari passing in 1571 while Motochika was born in 1539. Motonari mainly focused on the Chūgoku Region of Japan, with some clashes with Ōtomo Sōrin, but nothing branching towards Shikoku.(28) Motochika was similar, focusing his campaigns on the island of Shikoku and not much else.(29)
What was interesting about this episode though, was the exchange that took place between Motochika and Toshiie, who was sent to Shikoku on Nobunaga’s behalf. The Oda asked for certain provinces in Shikoku and in turn, he would not attack Shikoku. Interestingly, these demands are asked of by Nobunaga just weeks before Mitsuhide would turn traitor in 1582. Letters found in 2015 suggest that there was a possible move to take Shikoku next and this has been seen as a possible reason for Mitsuhide’s betrayal at Honnō-ji.(30)
The first season of Sengoku BASARA: Samurai Kings is great. It has a great cast of characters; a fantastic villain and it ends perfectly in thirteen episodes. It is also full of interesting yet sometimes hidden historical tidbits for people who look for them. As we will see though, the series does struggle some in the second season and the film, but the series does start out strong. I highly recommend checking it out if you can. Can’t go wrong with the English dub: both the Japanese and English versions are extremely well done.
- “Date Masamune”, Sengoku BASARA Wiki. https://sengokubasara.fandom.com/wiki/Date_Masamune, last visited 1/16/2022
- “Katakura Kojūrō”, Sengoku BASARA Wiki. https://sengokubasara.fandom.com/wiki/Katakura_Koj%C5%ABr%C5%8D, last visited 1/16/2022
- Once the article is published, the link will be here.
- Turnbull, Stephen. Kawanakajima 1553-64: samurai power struggle (2008), p. 68
- Sato, Hiroaki. Legends of the Samurai (1995), p. 221
- For information on Sarutobi Sasuke, click here.
- “Kasuga”, Sengoku BASARA Wiki. https://sengokubasara.fandom.com/wiki/Kasuga, last visited 1/16/2022
- “Kasugayama Castle”, Japan.Travel. https://www.japan.travel/en/japans-local-treasures/kasugayama-castle/, last visited 1/16/2022
- “Samurai Signals-Conch Shell Trumpets”, Gun Samurai YouTube Channel. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ynRYWJFhR5E, last viewed 1/16/2022
- “Imagawa Yoshimoto”, SamuraiWorld.com. https://samurai-world.com/imagawa-yoshimoto-1519-june-12-1560/, last visited 1/16/2022
- “Oniniwa Yoshinao”, Wikipedia.com. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oniniwa_Yoshinao, last visited 1/16/2022
- Google Translate, https://translate.google.com/?hl=en&tab=wT&sl=ja&tl=en&text=%E5%B8%B0%E8%9D%B6&op=translate, last visited 1/16/2022
- “Akechi Mitsuhide”, Sengoku BASARA Wiki. https://sengokubasara.fandom.com/wiki/Akechi_Mitsuhide, last visited 1/16/2022
- “Maeda Toshimasu”, Wikipedia.com. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maeda_Toshimasu, last visited 1/16/2022
- “Maeda Toshimasu”, Japanese Wiki Corpus. https://www.japanese-wiki-corpus.org/person/Toshimasu%20MAEDA.html, last visited 1/16/2022
- “Ashikaga Yoshiaki”, Japanese Wiki Corpus. https://www.japanese-wiki-corpus.org/person/Yoshiaki%20ASHIKAGA.html, last visited 1/16/2022
- “Azai Nagamasa”, Wikipedia.com. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azai_Nagamasa, last visited 1/16/2022
- We have talked about Tokugawa Ieyasu in the article on Ishida Mitsunari and the Sengoku BASARA: The Last Party Review.
- Turnbull, Stephen. Nagashino 1575: Slaughter at the barricades (2008), p. 48
- In the book Nagashino 1575: Slaughter at the barricades by Stephen Turnbull, the spelling of this field is quite different. Shitaragahara appears as “Shidarahara”.
- Ōta, Gyūichi. The Chronicle of Lord Nobunaga (2011), p. 204
- “Development of Samurai Armor throughout History”, Swords of Northshire.com. https://www.swordsofnorthshire.com/development-of-samurai-armor-throughout-history, last visited 1/16/2022
- “Bushidō—The Seven Virtues of The Samurai”, Medium.com. https://medium.com/the-philosophers-stone/bushid%C5%8D-the-seven-virtues-of-the-samurai-b0df06d2c8f0, last visited 1/16/2022
- Murakami, Naojiro. “The Jesuit Seminary of Azuchi.” Monumenta Nipponica 6, no. 1/2 (1943): 370–74. https://doi.org/10.2307/2382864., Accessed on JSOR.org 1/16/2022
- “Samurai family emblem—Sanada clan”, Steemit.com. https://steemit.com/samurai/@crazycatuncle/samurai-family-emblem-sanada-clan, last visited 1/16/2022
- “Itsuki”, Sengoku BASARA Wiki.com. https://sengokubasara.fandom.com/wiki/Itsuki, last visited 1/16/2022
- Turnbull, Stephen. Kawanakajima 1553-64: Samurai power struggle (2008), pp.75-76
- “Mōri Motonari”, Wikipedia.com. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C5%8Dri_Motonari, last visited 1/16/2022
- “Chōsokabe Motochika”, Wikipedia.com. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C5%8Dsokabe_Motochika, last visited 1/16/2022
- “The Honnō-ji Incident”, SamuraiWorld.com. https://samurai-world.com/the-honno-ji-incident/, last visited 1/16/2022